Einer der berühmtesten Patienten, der sich in den Archiven findet, ist Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson ( bis ). Zu ihm wurde der irische Arzt. Englands Royal Navy unter dem Kommando von Admiral Lord Nelsons September geborene Lord Horatio Nelson wurde während der Schlacht auf. Mit seinem Sieg bei Trafalgar legte Horatio Nelson den Grundstein für Oktober stellte der Admiral die zahlenmäßig überlegene.
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Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson, Herzog von Bronte, KB war ein britischer Admiral, der mehrere viel beachtete Seesiege errang bzw. daran entscheidenden Anteil hatte: St. Vincent, Abukir, Kopenhagen, Trafalgar. Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson, Herzog von Bronte, KB (* September in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England; † Oktober , Kap Trafalgar. Admiral Nelson bezeichnet folgende Personen: Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson (–), britischer Admiral. Admiral Nelson ist der Name folgender. Mit seinem Sieg bei Trafalgar legte Horatio Nelson den Grundstein für Oktober stellte der Admiral die zahlenmäßig überlegene. Mit seinen umstrittenen Entscheidungen gewann er wichtige Schlachten gegen die Franzosen unter Napoleon. Noch immer ist Lord Nelson ein britischer. Horatio Nelson, 1. Viscount Nelson, Herzog von Bronte, KB war ein britischer Admiral, der mehrere viel beachtete Seesiege errang bzw. daran entscheidenden. Admiral Nelson ist das Pfannkuchenschiff direkt an der Schlachte in Bremen. Mit Sitzplätzen auf dem Mitteldeck, weiteren 30 Plätzen in einem separaten.
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British forces landed at Calvi on 19 June, and immediately began moving guns ashore to occupy the heights surrounding the town. While Nelson directed a continuous bombardment of the enemy positions, Stuart's men began to advance.
On 12 July Nelson was at one of the forward batteries early in the morning when a shot struck one of the sandbags protecting the position, spraying stones and sand.
Nelson was struck by debris in his right eye and was forced to retire from the position, although his wound was soon bandaged and he returned to action.
Repositioning their guns, the British brought Calvi under constant bombardment, and the town surrendered on 10 August. After the occupation of Corsica, Hood ordered Nelson to open diplomatic relations with the city-state of Genoa , a strategically important potential ally.
Nelson put into Leghorn, and while Agamemnon underwent repairs, met with other naval officers at the port and entertained a brief affair with a local woman, Adelaide Correglia.
On 8 March, news reached Hotham that the French fleet was at sea and heading for Corsica. He immediately set out to intercept them, and Nelson eagerly anticipated his first fleet action.
The French were reluctant to engage and the two fleets shadowed each other throughout 12 March. Heavily damaged, the two French ships were forced to surrender and Nelson took possession of Censeur.
Defeated at sea, the French abandoned their plan to invade Corsica and returned to port. Nelson and the fleet remained in the Mediterranean throughout the summer of On 4 July Agamemnon sailed from St Fiorenzo with a small force of frigates and sloops, bound for Genoa.
On 6 July Nelson ran into the French fleet and found himself pursued by several much larger ships-of-the-line.
He retreated to St Fiorenzo, arriving just ahead of the pursuing French, who broke off as Nelson's signal guns alerted the British fleet in the harbour.
A number of small engagements were fought but to Nelson's dismay, he saw little action. Nelson returned to operate out of Genoa, intercepting and inspecting merchantmen and cutting-out suspicious vessels in both enemy and neutral harbours.
Nelson's forces were able to cover the withdrawing army and prevent them from being surrounded, but he had too few ships and men to materially alter the strategic situation, and the British were forced to withdraw from the Italian ports.
Nelson returned to Corsica on 30 November, angry and depressed at the British failure and questioning his future in the navy.
In January the position of commander-in-chief of the fleet in the Mediterranean passed to Sir John Jervis , who appointed Nelson to exercise independent command over the ships blockading the French coast as a commodore.
Despite some minor successes in intercepting small French warships e. Nelson hurried there to oversee the evacuation of British nationals and transported them to Corsica, after which Jervis ordered him to blockade the newly captured French port.
Nelson helped oversee the withdrawal from Corsica, and by December was aboard the frigate HMS Minerve , covering the evacuation of the garrison at Elba.
He then sailed for Gibraltar. During the passage, Nelson captured the Spanish frigate Santa Sabina and placed Lieutenants Jonathan Culverhouse and Thomas Hardy in charge of the captured vessel, taking the Spanish captain on board Minerve.
Santa Sabina was part of a larger Spanish force, and the following morning two Spanish ships-of-the-line and a frigate were sighted closing fast.
Unable to outrun them, Nelson initially determined to fight but Culverhouse and Hardy raised the British colours and sailed northeast, drawing the Spanish ships after them until being captured, giving Nelson the opportunity to escape.
Nelson found himself towards the rear of the British line and realised that it would be a long time before he could bring Captain into action.
After an hour of exchanging broadsides which left both Captain and Culloden badly damaged, Nelson found himself alongside San Nicolas. He led a boarding party across, crying "Westminster Abbey or glorious victory!
Nelson led his party from the deck of San Nicolas onto San Josef and captured her as well. Four ships had surrendered to the British and two of them were Nelson's.
Nelson was victorious, but had disobeyed direct orders. Jervis liked Nelson and so did not officially reprimand him,  but did not mention Nelson's actions in his official report of the battle.
Parker claimed that Nelson had been supported by several more ships than he acknowledged, and that San Josef had already struck her colours by the time Nelson boarded her.
During the action Nelson's barge collided with that of the Spanish commander, and a hand-to-hand struggle ensued between the two crews. Twice Nelson was nearly cut down and both times his life was saved by a seaman named John Sykes who took the blows and was badly wounded.
The British raiding force captured the Spanish boat and towed her back to Theseus. The battle plan called for a combination of naval bombardments and an amphibious landing.
The initial attempt was called off after adverse currents hampered the assault and the element of surprise was lost. He prepared for a third attempt, to take place during the night.
Although he personally led one of the battalions, the operation ended in failure: the Spanish were better prepared than had been expected and had secured strong defensive positions.
Nelson's boat reached its intended landing point but as he stepped ashore he was hit in the right arm by a musketball, which fractured his humerus bone in multiple places.
I have got my legs left and one arm. Meanwhile, a force under Sir Thomas Troubridge had fought their way to the main square but could go no further.
Unable to return to the fleet because their boats had been sunk, Troubridge was forced to enter into negotiations with the Spanish commander, and the British were allowed to withdraw.
Despondently Nelson wrote to Jervis: "A left-handed Admiral will never again be considered as useful, therefore the sooner I get to a very humble cottage the better, and make room for a better man to serve the state".
He was met with a hero's welcome: the British public had lionised Nelson after Cape St Vincent and his wound earned him sympathy.
Nelson returned to Bath with Fanny, before moving to London in October to seek expert medical attention concerning his amputated arm.
Although surgeons had been unable to remove the central ligature in his amputated arm, which had caused considerable inflammation and poisoning, in early December it came out of its own accord and Nelson rapidly began to recover.
Nelson and the Vanguard were to be dispatched to Cadiz to reinforce the fleet. St Vincent sent him on to Toulon with a small force to reconnoitre French activities.
Nelson passed through the Straits of Gibraltar and took up position off Toulon by 17 May, but his squadron was dispersed and blown southwards by a strong gale that struck the area on 20 May.
Nelson, having been reinforced with a number of ships from St Vincent, went in pursuit. Napoleon had already arrived at Malta and, after a show of force, secured the island's surrender.
After a conference with his captains, he decided Egypt was Napoleon's most likely destination and headed for Alexandria.
On his arrival on 28 June, though, he found no sign of the French; dismayed, he withdrew and began searching to the east of the port. While he was absent, Napoleon's fleet arrived on 1 July and landed their forces unopposed.
Brueys then anchored his fleet in Aboukir Bay , ready to support Napoleon if required. In doing so his force captured a French merchant ship, which provided the first news of the French fleet: they had passed south-east of Crete a month before, heading to Alexandria.
Searching along the coast, he finally discovered the French fleet in Aboukir Bay on 1 August Nelson immediately prepared for battle, repeating a sentiment he had expressed at the battle of Cape St Vincent that "Before this time tomorrow, I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey.
The French line was anchored close to a line of shoals, in the belief that this would secure their port side from attack; Brueys had assumed the British would follow convention and attack his centre from the starboard side.
The unprepared French found themselves attacked on both sides, the British fleet splitting, with some following Foley and others passing down the starboard side of the French line.
The British fleet was soon heavily engaged, passing down the French line and engaging their ships one by one. Nelson on Vanguard personally engaged Spartiate , also coming under fire from Aquilon.
At about eight o'clock, he was with Berry on the quarter-deck when a piece of French shot struck him in his forehead. He fell to the deck, a flap of torn skin obscuring his good eye.
Blinded and half stunned, he felt sure he would die and cried out "I am killed. Remember me to my wife. The French van, pounded by British fire from both sides, had begun to surrender, and the victorious British ships continued to move down the line, bringing Brueys's gun flagship Orient under constant heavy fire.
Orient caught fire under this bombardment, and later exploded. Nelson briefly came on deck to direct the battle, but returned to the surgeon after watching the destruction of Orient.
The Battle of the Nile was a major blow to Napoleon's ambitions in the east. The fleet had been destroyed: Orient , another ship and two frigates had been burnt, seven gun ships and two gun ships had been captured, and only two ships-of-the-line and two frigates escaped,  while the forces Napoleon had brought to Egypt were stranded.
Napoleon then left his army and sailed back to France, evading detection by British ships. Given its strategic importance, some historians regard Nelson's achievement at the Nile as the most significant of his career, even greater than that at Trafalgar seven years later.
Nelson wrote dispatches to the Admiralty and oversaw temporary repairs to the Vanguard , before sailing to Naples where he was met with enthusiastic celebrations.
Jervis himself had begun to grow concerned about reports of Nelson's behaviour, but in early October word of Nelson's victory had reached London.
The City of London awarded Nelson and his captains swords, whilst the King ordered them to be presented with special medals. Instead, Nelson received the title Baron Nelson of the Nile.
Nelson was dismayed by Spencer's decision, and declared that he would rather have received no title than that of a mere barony.
He made frequent visits to attend functions in his honour, or to tour nearby attractions with Emma, with whom he had by now fallen deeply in love, almost constantly at his side.
Despite enjoying his lifestyle in Naples, Nelson began to think of returning to England,  but King Ferdinand of Naples, after a long period of pressure from his wife Maria Carolina of Austria and Sir William Hamilton, finally agreed to declare war on France.
The Neapolitan army, led by the Austrian General Mack and supported by Nelson's fleet, retook Rome from the French in late November, but the French regrouped outside the city and, after being reinforced, routed the Neapolitans.
In disarray, the Neapolitan army fled back to Naples, with the pursuing French close behind. The evacuation got under way on 23 December and sailed through heavy gales before reaching the safety of Palermo on 26 December.
With the departure of the Royal Family, Naples descended into anarchy and news reached Palermo in January that the French had entered the city under General Championnet and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic.
In late June Ruffo's army entered Naples, forcing the French and their supporters to withdraw to the city's fortifications as rioting and looting broke out amongst the ill-disciplined Neapolitan troops.
Nelson arrived off Naples on 24 June to find the treaty put into effect. His subsequent role is still controversial. Nelson then had the transports seized.
Caracciolo was tried by royalist Neapolitan officers and sentenced to death. Caracciolo was hanged aboard the Neapolitan frigate Minerva at 5 o'clock the same afternoon.
In , Nelson opposed the mistreatment of slaves held in Portuguese galleys off Palermo and intervened to secure their release. Nelson petitioned the Portuguese commander Marquiz de Niza, 'as a friend, as an English admiral — as a favour to me, as a favour to my country — that you will give me the Slaves'.
The marquis acquiesced to the unusual request, allowing twenty-four slaves to be pulled across to Bonne Citoyenne, their blessings to their English saviour then ringing out across the harbour as their names were added to the sloop's already crowded muster book.
Nelson returned to Palermo in August and in September became the senior officer in the Mediterranean after Jervis' successor Lord Keith left to chase the French and Spanish fleets into the Atlantic.
You will be more likely to recover your health and strength in England than in any inactive situation at a foreign Court, however pleasing the respect and gratitude shown to you for your services may be.
The recall of Sir William Hamilton to Britain was a further incentive for Nelson to return, although he and the Hamiltons initially sailed from Naples on a brief cruise around Malta aboard the Foudroyant in April It was on this voyage that Horatio and Emma's illegitimate daughter Horatia was probably conceived.
Keith came to Leghorn in person to demand an explanation, and refused to be moved by the Queen's pleas to allow her to be conveyed in a British ship.
They made stops at Trieste and Vienna , spending three weeks in the latter where they were entertained by the local nobility and heard the Missa in Angustiis by Haydn that now bears Nelson's name.
He then made his way to London, arriving on 9 November. He attended court and was guest of honour at a number of banquets and balls.
During this period Fanny Nelson and Emma Hamilton met for the first time; Nelson was reported as being cold and distant to his wife and his attention to Emma became the subject of gossip.
Events came to a head around Christmas, when according to Nelson's solicitor, Fanny issued an ultimatum on whether he was to choose her or Emma.
Nelson replied:. I love you sincerely but I cannot forget my obligations to Lady Hamilton or speak of her otherwise than with affection and admiration.
The two never lived together again. On 29 January , Emma gave birth to their daughter, Horatia. On their arrival, Parker was inclined to blockade Denmark and control the entrance to the Baltic, but Nelson urged a pre-emptive attack on the Danish fleet at harbour in Copenhagen.
Parker himself would wait in the Kattegat , covering Nelson's fleet in case of the arrival of the Swedish or Russian fleets. On the morning of 2 April , Nelson began to advance into Copenhagen harbour.
The battle began badly for the British, with HMS Agamemnon , Bellona and Russell running aground, and the rest of the fleet encountering heavier fire from the Danish shore batteries than had been anticipated.
Parker sent the signal for Nelson to withdraw, reasoning:. I will make the signal for recall for Nelson's sake.
If he is in a condition to continue the action he will disregard it; if he is not, it will be an excuse for his retreat and no blame can be attached to him.
Keep your eyes fixed on him. I have a right to be blind sometimes. At length Nelson dispatched a letter to the Danish commander, Crown Prince Frederick , calling for a truce, which the Prince accepted.
Satisfied with the outcome of the expedition, he returned to England, arriving on 1 July. In France, Napoleon was massing forces to invade Great Britain.
After a brief spell in London, where he again visited the Hamiltons, Nelson was placed in charge of defending the English Channel to prevent the invasion.
On 30 October Nelson spoke in support of the Addington government in the House of Lords, and afterwards made regular visits to attend sessions.
Nelson often found himself received as a hero and was the centre of celebrations and events held in his honour.
In January , Nelson appeared as a character witness in the treason trial of a former comrade in arms, Colonel Edward Despard.
Despard, who had been moving in radical circles in London--a member both of the London Corresponding Society and the United Irishmen --was the alleged ringleader of conspiracy to assassinate the King and seize the Tower of London , the so-called Despard Plot.
In court Nelson recollected his service with Despard in the Caribbean during the American War: "We went on the Spanish Main together; we slept many nights together in our clothes upon the ground; we have measured the height of the enemies walls together.
In all that period of time no man could have shewn more zealous attachment to his Sovereign and his Country". Under cross-examination, however, Nelson had to concede to having "lost sight of Despard for the last twenty years.
He joined her at Portsmouth, where he received orders to sail to Malta and take command of a squadron there before joining the blockade of Toulon.
He was promoted to Vice Admiral of the White while still at sea, on 23 April Nelson set off in pursuit but after searching the eastern Mediterranean he learned that the French had been blown back into Toulon.
Nelson gave chase, but after arriving in the Caribbean, spent June in a fruitless search for the fleet.
Villeneuve had briefly cruised around the islands before heading back to Europe, in contravention of Napoleon's orders.
He entertained a number of his friends and relations there over the coming month, and began plans for a grand engagement with the enemy fleet, one that would surprise his foes by forcing a pell-mell battle on them.
Wellington was waiting to be debriefed on his Indian operations, and Nelson on his chase and future plans. Wellington later recalled, "He Nelson entered at once into conversation with me, if I can call it conversation, for it was almost all on his side and all about himself and, in reality, a style so vain and so silly as to surprise and almost disgust me.
This was the only meeting between the two men. Nelson returned briefly to Merton to set his affairs in order and bid farewell to Emma, before travelling back to London and then on to Portsmouth, arriving there early in the morning of 14 September.
During the breakfast word spread of Nelson's presence at the inn and a large crowd of well wishers gathered.
They accompanied Nelson to his barge and cheered him off, which Nelson acknowledged by raising his hat. Nelson was recorded as having turned to his colleague and stating: "I had their huzzas before: I have their hearts now.
Drawing on his own experience from the Nile and Copenhagen, and the examples of Duncan at Camperdown and Rodney at the Saintes , Nelson decided to split his fleet into squadrons rather than forming it into a similar line parallel to the enemy.
The combined French and Spanish fleet under Villeneuve's command numbered 33 ships of the line. Napoleon Bonaparte had intended for Villeneuve to sail into the English Channel and cover the planned invasion of Britain, but the entry of Austria and Russia into the war forced Napoleon to call off the planned invasion and transfer troops to Germany.
At four o'clock in the morning of 21 October, Nelson ordered the Victory to turn towards the approaching enemy fleet, and signalled the rest of his force to battle stations.
He then went below and made his will, before returning to the quarterdeck to carry out an inspection. Mr Pasco, I wish to say to the fleet "England confides that every man will do his duty".
You must be quick, for I have one more signal to make, which is for close action. Pasco suggested changing confides to expects which, being in the Signal Book, could be signalled by the use of a single code using three flags , whereas confides would have to be spelt out letter by letter.
Nelson agreed, and the signal was hoisted. As the fleets converged, Victory' s captain, Thomas Hardy, suggested that Nelson remove the decorations on his coat, so that he would not be so easily identified by enemy sharpshooters.
Nelson replied that it was too late "to be shifting a coat", adding that they were "military orders and he did not fear to show them to the enemy".
Victory came under fire, initially passing wide, but then with greater accuracy as the distances decreased. A cannonball struck and killed Nelson's secretary, John Scott, nearly cutting him in two.
Hardy's clerk took over, but he too was almost immediately killed. Victory ' s wheel was shot away, and another cannonball cut down eight marines.
Hardy, standing next to Nelson on the quarterdeck, had his shoe buckle dented by a splinter. Nelson observed, "This is too warm work to last long.
Nelson told him to take his pick, and Hardy moved Victory across the stern of the gun French flagship Bucentaure. As sharpshooters from the enemy ships fired onto Victory ' s deck from their rigging, Nelson and Hardy continued to walk about, directing and giving orders.
Shortly after , Hardy realised that Nelson was not by his side. He turned to see Nelson kneeling on the deck, supporting himself with his hand, before falling onto his side.
Hardy rushed to him, at which point Nelson smiled:. Hardy, I do believe they have done it at last Nelson was carried below by sergeant-major of marines Robert Adair and two seamen.
As he was being carried down, he asked them to pause while he gave some advice to a midshipman on the handling of the tiller.
He was taken to the surgeon William Beatty , telling him that. You can do nothing for me. I have but a short time to live.
My back is shot through. Nelson was made comfortable, fanned and brought lemonade and watered wine to drink after he complained of feeling hot and thirsty.
He asked several times to see Hardy, who was on deck supervising the battle, and asked Beatty to remember him to Emma, his daughter and his friends. Hardy came belowdecks to see Nelson just after half-past two, and informed him that a number of enemy ships had surrendered.
Nelson told him that he was sure to die, and begged him to pass his possessions to Emma. Nelson, fearing that a gale was blowing up, instructed Hardy to be sure to anchor.
He then stood for a minute or two before kissing him on the forehead. Nelson asked, "Who is that? Scott, who remained by Nelson as he died, recorded his last words as "God and my country".
Nelson's body was placed in a cask of brandy mixed with camphor and myrrh , which was then lashed to the Victory ' s mainmast and placed under guard.
She later recalled,. They brought me word, Mr Whitby from the Admiralty. He came in, and with a pale countenance and faint voice, said, "We have gained a great Victory.
I believe I gave a scream and fell back, and for ten hours I could neither speak nor shed a tear. King George III , on receiving the news, is alleged to have said, in tears, "We have lost more than we have gained.
We do not know whether we should mourn or rejoice. The country has gained the most splendid and decisive Victory that has ever graced the naval annals of England; but it has been dearly purchased.
Nelson's body was unloaded from the Victory at the Nore. It was conveyed upriver in Commander Grey's yacht Chatham to Greenwich and placed in a lead coffin, and that in another wooden one, made from the mast of L'Orient which had been salvaged after the Battle of the Nile.
He lay in state in the Painted Hall at Greenwich for three days, before being taken upriver aboard a barge, accompanied by Samuel lord Hood, chief mourner Sir Peter Parker, and the Prince of Wales.
Nelson was regarded as a highly effective leader, and someone who was able to sympathise with the needs of his men.
He based his command on love rather than authority, inspiring both his superiors and his subordinates with his considerable courage, commitment and charisma, dubbed " the Nelson touch ".
The memorandum he wrote before Trafalgar expresses his attitude well: "No captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy.
Nelson's personality was complex, often characterised by a desire to be noticed, both by his superiors, and the public. He was easily flattered by praise, and dismayed when he felt he was not given sufficient credit for his actions.
Aspects of Nelson's life and career were controversial, both during his lifetime and after his death. His affair with Emma Hamilton was widely remarked upon and disapproved of, to the extent that Emma was denied permission to attend his funeral and was subsequently ignored by the government, which awarded money and titles to Nelson's legitimate family.
Prominent contemporary politician Charles James Fox was among those who attacked Nelson for his actions at Naples, declaring in the House of Commons.
I wish that the atrocities of which we hear so much and which I abhor as much as any man, were indeed unexampled. They made terms with him under the sanction of the British name.
Before they sailed their property was confiscated, numbers were thrown into dungeons, and some of them, I understand, notwithstanding the British guarantee, were actually executed.
Other pro-republican writers produced books and pamphlets decrying the events in Naples as atrocities. Lambert also suggests that Nelson in fact acted to put an end to the bloodshed, using his ships and men to restore order in the city.
Nelson's influence continued long after his death, and saw periodic revivals of interest, especially during times of crisis in Britain.
A number of monuments and memorials were constructed across the country, and abroad, to honour his memory and achievements. Dublin 's monument to Nelson, Nelson's Pillar , completed in , was destroyed by Irish republicans in The Barbadian Government removed Nelson because of his role in the slave trade.
Nelson's titles, as inscribed on his coffin and read out at the funeral by the Garter King at Arms , Sir Isaac Heard , were:.
Nelson had his first taste of action in the Indian Ocean. Soon after, struck down by fever—probably malaria—he was invalided home, and, while recovering from the consequent depression, Nelson experienced a dramatic surge of optimism.
In Nelson passed the examination for lieutenant and sailed for the West Indies, the most active theatre in the war against the American colonies.
Promoted to captain in , at the early age of 20, he was given command of a frigate and took part in operations against Spanish settlements in Nicaragua , which became targets once Spain joined France in alliance with the American Revolutionaries.
The attack on San Juan was militarily successful but ultimately disastrous when the British force was almost wiped out by yellow fever; Nelson himself was lucky to survive.
On his return to London he was cheered by the appointment, in , to command a frigate bound for the West Indies. But this was not to be a happy commission.
By rigidly enforcing the Navigation Act against American ships, which were still trading with the British privileges they had officially lost, he made enemies not only among merchants and shipowners but also among the resident British authorities who, in their own interest, had failed to enforce the law.
Under the strain of his difficulties and of the loneliness of command, Nelson was at his most vulnerable when he visited the island of Nevis in March There he met Frances Nisbet, a widow, and her five-year-old son, Josiah.
Nelson conducted his courtship with formality and charm, and in March the couple was married at Nevis. Returning with his bride to Burnham Thorpe, Nelson found himself without another appointment and on half pay.
From this moment, Nelson the enthusiastic professional was gradually replaced by Nelson the commander of genius. The coming months were probably his most tranquil emotionally.
At home waited a loving wife, whose son he had taken to sea with him. His ship, fast and maneuverable, and his crew, superbly trained, pleased him.
His task was to fight the Revolutionary French and support British allies in the Mediterranean. Assigned to the forlorn defense of the port of Toulon against the revolutionaries—among them a year-old officer of artillery, Napoleon Bonaparte—Nelson was dispatched to Naples to collect reinforcements.